Volume 16, Issue 7 (10-2017)                   JRUMS 2017, 16(7): 605-622 | Back to browse issues page


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Mortazavi S, Norouzi Fard P, Anbarnejhad S. Quantitative Assessment of Concentration of Pharmaceutical Pollutants (Naproxen, Diclofenac, and Celecoxib) in the Karaj River, Alborz Province, Iran. JRUMS. 2017; 16 (7) :605-622
URL: http://journal.rums.ac.ir/article-1-3748-en.html

Assistant Professor Malayer University
Abstract:   (189 Views)

Background and Objectives: Aquatic ecosystems, especially rivers that pass through densely populated residential areas are utilized more than any other resource for a variety of uses and can have great effects on environment and human health. Karaj River in Alborz province is one of the largest aquatic ecosystems along which three important treatment plants are established.
Materials and Methods: Since long-term toxicity and retention are main features of pharmaceutical contaminants in the aquatic environment, present research aimed to evaluate anti-inflammatory drugs, concentrations of naproxen, diclofenac, and celecoxib in Karaj River with samples from 14 sites along the river, 6 stations, and the wastewater treatment plants. After preparation and filtration of samples, the concentrations of drugs were measured by HPLC.
Results: The results showed that the average concentrations of drugs in the Karaj river water were as follow: 0.409 µg/l naproxen, 0.091 µg/l celecoxib, and 0.034 µg/l diclofenac. In the wastewater treatment plant and its sewer,the drugs concentrations were 0.774 and 0.566 µg/l naproxen, 0.260 and 0.171 µg/l celecoxib, and 0.082 and 0.064 µg/l diclofenac, respectively.
Conclusion: Their reducing trend can be found in sewer, wastewater, and water with the highest concentration of naproxen and lowest concentration of diclofenac. The correlation between the pollutants in different samples may indicate inefficiency of the treatment plants and retention of the pollutants that are discharged into the river through the wastewater. For this, in order to protect environment it is essential to use effective methods of treatment.
Key words: Pharmaceutical pollutant, Water treatment, River, Analgesic, HPLC, Karaj
 
Funding: This article did not have any funds.
Conflict of interest: None declared.
Ethical approval: The Ethics Committee of Malayer University approved the study.
 
How to cite this article: Mortazavi S, Norouzi Fard P,Anbarnejhad N. Quantitative Assessment of Concentration of Pharmaceutical Pollutants (Naproxen, Diclofenac,  and Celecoxib) in the Karaj River,  Alborz Province, Iran. J Rafsanjan Univ Med Sci 2017; 16(7): 605-22. [Farsi]
 

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Environmental Health
Received: 2017/04/3 | Accepted: 2017/10/10 | Published: 2017/10/22

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